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科胡特关于神入的概念  

2015-05-04 17:03:00|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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(一) Probably no term or concept that Kohut (1959, 1971, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1984) wrote about has been more misun
(一).
Probably no term or concept that Kohut (1959, 1971, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1984) wrote about has been more misunderstood by friends and foes alike than that of empathy.
 
As has been frequently noted, he was so exasperated by those who felt he was advocating the use of empathy as some sort of "psychotherapeutic perversion," - some way of being "nice," "kind," and "curing one's patient's through love" - that he dedicated his final address just days before his death to a fuller clarification of the term.
 
In essence he spoke of empathy on two different levels: the abstract and the operational.
 
Abstract Empathy By the abstract definition of empathy he meant the role of empathy in defining the science of psychoanalysis.
 
In other words, any science is defined by an object of study and a method by which the data of that science is collected.
 
For example, the physical sciences have as their object of study the discernible world that can be observed via the senses and those instruments that enhance the senses.
 
On the other hand, psychoanalysis has as its object of study the inner life of man (the data of human experience) while the method by which the analyst makes his observations is introspection into oneself and vicarious introspection or empathy into another.
 
In other words, empathy is nothing more than the "tool" or "instrument" that permits psychoanalysts to collect their data, which over time can be translated into explanations in the clinical setting and abstract constructs in the theoretical realm.
It was this methodology that made it possible for Freud to discover transference, countertransference, defenses, and resistance.
 
As Freud moved away from the empathic mode of data collecting, he introduced constructs and assumptions that belong to other sciences.
 
One example is that of the "drive," which was assumed to be on the borderland between the psyche and the soma. Thus "drive theory" psychoanalysis could no longer be viewed as a pure psychology but rather as an amalgam of psychology and biology, that is, a psycho-biology or bio-psychology.
 
Operational Empathy By the operational definition of empathy Kohut is referring to the clinically relevant definition of empathy as "the capacity to think and feel oneself into the inner life of another person" (Kohut, 1984, p. 82).
 
Derived from the German term Einfuhlung, empathy evolved in its meaning to connote "feeling into" or "searching one's way" into the experience of another (Basch, 1983).
 
For Kohut, empathy is simply what allows an individual to know another's experience without losing one's objectivity.
 
In other words, empathy is experience-near observation and nothing more.
 
 
 
 或许科胡特(1959,1971,1975,1977,1981,1984)记述的术语或概念里,没有比“神入”已更能引起朋友或仇人的误解了。
 
由于频繁地被注意到,他被那些认为他拥护神入的使用是有几分对“心理疗法的曲解”所激怒——一些“美好的”、“友好的”、“通过爱治疗病人”的方式——以致他在临死前的几天致力于对这个术语的更完整的澄清。
 
实质上,他在两个不同的水平上谈到神入:理论(抽象的)及操作的。
 
抽象的神入,按照神入的理论定义,他把它指定为精神分析分中的共情作用。
 
换句话说,任何科学都是由研究的对象及收集科学数据的方法定义的。
 
例如,物理科学把可感知的世界作为他们的研究对象,这种可感知的世界通过感觉以及强化感觉的仪器来感知。
 
另一方面,心理分析把人类的内心生活(人类经验的资料)作为其研究对象,与此同时分析家处理其观察材料的方法是内省,和各种对另一个体的内省或神入。
 
换句话说,在理论领域,神入正是一种“工具”或“器械”,这“工具”或“器械”允许心理心理分析家收集数据,这些数据随着时间的推移可以在临床设置中及理论框架内被转化为解释说明。正是这种方法论使弗洛伊德发现了移情、反移情、防御及阻抗。
 
 
当弗洛伊德从数据收集的神入模式离开时,他介绍了属于其它科学的一些构造和假设。
 
一个例子就是关于“驱力”,被假设处于身体和灵魂之间的边界上,因而“驱力理论”心理分析可能不再被认为是一种纯心理学而宁可被认为是一种心理学和生物学的混合,也就是心理-生物学或生物-心理学。
 
操作性神入,按照神入的可操作性定义,胡科特是指与临床相关的共情的定义,如“把让自己的感觉与思维进入到另一个人的内部生活的能力”。(科胡特,1984,第82页)
 
源自德语移情作用(Einfuhlung),神入在它本义的基础上发展为“感受进入”或“探索一个人的习惯”进入到其它人的体验。
 
对科胡特来说,神入仅仅是允许一个个体了解另一个个体的体验而不失其客观性。
 
换句话说,神入是一种与经验相仿的观察,而非其它什么。
 
 
二)
 
正如先前提到的那样,科胡特由于许多对神入的曲解而受挫,对这个术语,他想要当代及以后的人不仅了解他解释的而且了解他没有解释的。
 
例如,关于共情沉浸(empathic immersion),科胡特没有描述一种过程,通过这种过程一个人猜测,直觉或着魔般地感知-那就是,它不是超感官的感受(extra-sensory perception)某种形式。
 
即使在相似的环境中,我们也不会感受到完全一样的感受。例如,假如一个病人报告了他的父(母)的死亡,而分析家最近经历了突然丧失母亲,他也不能假设他的丧失的体验和病人的完全一样。
 
神入也不是把其他人“视为一体”或“变成”其他人,以致于一个人被其他人感受的强烈所“冲击”或“淹没”。
 
 
相反,在临床上,共情沉浸是一个缓慢又“单调乏味的”、“试误的”、“长期的”过程,通过这个过程,自体心理学家在保持他(或她)的客观性的同时,在一个被削弱的水平上,“体味到”一种对病人的体验的“喜爱”。
 
 
最后,一个经常性的错误——一个越来越多地在自体心理著作中出现的错误,——是把神入等同于一个行为。
 
在这一观点中,科胡特固执地认为神入不能等同于一种“行为”、“动作”,或在人的相互作用中通常被认定为爱、同情或其他强烈的感情的一种品质(Goldberg,1980)。
 
 
然而,科胡特也懂得,假如神入导致一种直接从人的与经验相近的观察中产生的反应或行为(非反应或非行为),那么它也只能和人类的相互作用相关。
 
 
因而,当科胡特提出“自省和神入是正确的行为的报告者”(1981,第529页)时,他一边强调他们的差异,一边把神入和行为联系了起来。由此他的意思是,只有当一个人能够站在别人的立场上,通过别人的眼睛看世界时,他才能够产生一种可信、准确且适宜的反应。
 
 
临床上神入的用途主要地是为了理解和解释人们已观察到的东西的目的。
 
___________________-
 
(二)
 
As indicated previously, Kohut was frustrated by the many misinterpretations of empathy and wanted present and future generations to know not only what he meant but also what he did not mean by the term.
 
For instance, by empathic immersion Kohut is not describing a process by which one guesses, intuits, or magically perceives – that is, it is not some form of extra-sensory perception.
 
Nor is it the same as we would feel if in a similar circumstance.
For example, if a patient reports the death of a parent, and the analyst has recently experienced the sudden loss of his mother, he cannot assume that his experience of loss is the same as that of his patient.
 
Empathy is also not the same as "identifying with" or "becoming" the other, so that one is "flooded by" or overwhelmed by the intensity of another's feelings.
 
On the contrary, in the clinical setting, empathic immersion is a slow and "plodding," "trial and error," "long-term" process by which the self psychologist "tastes" to an attenuated degree the "flavor" of the patient's experience while maintaining his or her objectivity.
 
Finally, a common error - and one seen more and more frequently in the self psychological literature - is the equation of empathy with an action.
 
In this regard, Kohut was adamant that empathy cannot be equated with a "deed," "act," or quality in a person's interactions that is commonly identified with love, compassion, or any other intense emotion (Goldberg, 1980).
 
Yet, Kohut also understood that empathy could only be relevant to human interaction if it results in a response or action (non-response or non-action) that follows directly from one's experience-near observations.
 
Thus Kohut links empathy and action while emphasizing their differences when he states that "introspection and empathy are informers of appropriate action" (1981, p. 529). By this he means that it is only when one is able to step into the shoes of another, to see the world through the other's eyes that one is able to generate a response that is authentic, accurate, and fitting.
 
The use of empathy in the clinical setting is primarily for the purpose of understanding and explaining what one has observed.
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